GROUP 1. Run title and other preliminaries TEXT(2D 2-PHASE BUBBLE-STIRRED GAS LADLE TITLE DISPLAY The case considered is 2-phase turbulent air-water flow in the bubble-stirred ladle described by Johansen et al ( Metall. Trans. B, Vol.19B, p755, 1988 ). The ladle is 1.237m high and 1.016m in diameter. Air is supplied through a centrally located 0.05m diameter plug at a flow rate of Q=610cm**3/s. The bubble diameter is taken as 0.25{0.35*(Q**2/g)**0.2}, and air is allowed to leave through the free surface at the top of the ladle. The calculation is performed with the k-e model, with the option to use of of two alternative modifications for bubble- induced turbulence production. The interphase drag is calculated by using the 'dirty-water' bubble-drag correlation of Kuo and Wallis, and virtual-mass, lift and interfacial pressure effects are neglected. The task is to calculate liquid-phase vertical velocity profiles at various heights for comparison with the measured profiles. ENDDIS REAL(DIAMA,DIAMC,RADA,RADC,ZLENT,PI,GRAVAC,DTT,STEN,AREA) REAL(DIAMB,DTF,QGAS,FLOWG,VSLIPM,EMULIQ,RGAS,RLIQ,RGINIT) REAL(WGAS,TKEIN,EPIN);INTEGER(KMOD) DIAMC=1.016;RADC=0.5*DIAMC;ZLENT=1.237;RGAS=1.E-3;RLIQ=1.-RGAS PI=3.14159;GRAVAC=-9.81;EMULIQ=1.E-3;RGINIT=1.E-4;STEN=0.072 DIAMA=0.05;RADA=0.5*DIAMA;QGAS=6.1E-4;AREA=PI*RADA*RADA WGAS=QGAS/AREA;DIAMB=0.25*0.35*(-QGAS*QGAS/GRAVAC)**0.2 TKEIN=(0.1*WGAS)**2;EPIN=0.1643*TKEIN**1.5/(0.1*RADA) GROUP 2. Transience; time-step specification GROUP 3. X-direction grid specification CARTES=F;XULAST=0.1;AREA=XULAST*0.5*RADC*RADC GROUP 4. Y-direction grid specification NREGY=2 IREGY=1;GRDPWR(Y,4,RADA,1.0) IREGY=2;GRDPWR(Y,-16,RADC-RADA,1.5) GROUP 5. Z-direction grid specification NZ=30;GRDPWR(Z,-NZ,ZLENT,1.4) GROUP 6. Body-fitted coordinates or grid distortion GROUP 7. Variables stored, solved & named ONEPHS=F;SOLVE(P1,V1,V2,W1,W2,R1,R2) SOLUTN(P1,Y,Y,Y,P,P,P);TURMOD(KEMODL) ** deactivate harmonic averaging SOLUTN(V1,P,P,P,P,P,N);SOLUTN(V2,P,P,P,P,P,N) SOLUTN(W1,P,P,P,P,P,N);SOLUTN(W2,P,P,P,P,P,N) SOLUTN(R1,P,P,P,P,P,N);SOLUTN(R2,P,P,P,P,P,N) STORE(VREL,CFIP,ENUT,LEN1,CD,REYN,PRKB) GROUP 8. Terms (in differential equations) & devices DIFCUT=0.5 GROUP 9. Properties of the medium (or media) RHO1=1.E3;RHO2=1.21;ENUL=EMULIQ/RHO1 GROUP 10. Inter-phase-transfer processes and properties CFIPS=GRND7;CFIPD=5.0;VSLIPM=1.E-4;CFIPA=VSLIPM;CFIPB=DIAMB CFIPC=STEN;RLOLIM=1.E-3 GROUP 11. Initialization of variable or porosity fields FIINIT(R1)=RLIQ;FIINIT(R2)=RGAS;FIINIT(W1)=1.E-3 FIINIT(W2)=1.E-3;FIINIT(KE)=TKEIN;FIINIT(EP)=EPIN GROUP 12. Patchwise adjustment of terms GROUP 13. Boundary conditions and special sources KEY: $ 1st cell in a region % Last cell in a region # all cells in that region ** Gas-phase mass-inflow boundary FLOWG=RHO2*WGAS PATCH(IN,LOW,1,NX,#1,#1,1,1,1,LSTEP) COVAL(IN,P2,FIXFLU,FLOWG);COVAL(IN,W2,ONLYMS,WGAS) ** Gas-phase outflow boundary PATCH(OUTG,HIGH,1,NX,1,NY,NZ,NZ,1,LSTEP) COVAL(OUTG,P2,RHO2*1.E6,0.0) ** Liquid-phase 'pressure-relief' outflow cell PATCH(OUTL,HIGH,1,NX,NY,NY,NZ,NZ,1,LSTEP) COVAL(OUTL,P1,RHO1,0.0) ** Gravititional force relative to liquid phase PATCH(GRAVITY,PHASEM,1,NX,1,NY,1,NZ,1,LSTEP) COVAL(GRAVITY,W2,FIXFLU,GRAVAC*(1.-RHO1/RHO2)) ** Wall friction WALL(NWALL,NORTH,1,NX,NY,NY,1,NZ,1,LSTEP) MESG( Enter the required k-e modification option: MESG( 1 - No modifications (default) MESG( 2 - Additional KE & EP sources due to bubbles ( these MESG( sources should be activated only after the solution MESG( fields have evolved, say after 800 sweeps ). MESG( 3 - Enhanced ENUT due to bubbles MESG( READVDU(KMOD,INT,1) KELIN=1 IF(KMOD.EQ.2) THEN + MESG( KE & EP bubble-induced turbulence sources active. + PATCH(KEDI,CELL,1,NX,1,NY,1,NZ,1,LSTEP);EL1A=0.01 + COVAL(KEDI,KE,FIXFLU,GRND3);COVAL(KEDI,EP,FIXFLU,GRND3) + TEXT(BUBBLE-STIRRED GAS LADLE- KE & EP sources ENDIF IF(KMOD.EQ.3) THEN + MESG( ENUT enhancement due to bubbles is active + ENUTB=1.0;ENUTC=0.3;KELIN=3 + TEXT(BUBBLE-STIRRED GAS LADLE- Enhanced ENUT ENDIF GROUP 15. Termination of sweeps ** The calculation requires 3500 sweeps for convergence. LSWEEP=3500;TSTSWP=-10 GROUP 16. Termination of iterations SELREF=T;RESFAC=0.01 GROUP 17. Under-relaxation devices DTF=0.3*ZWLAST/WGAS/NZ RELAX(P1,LINRLX,0.5) RELAX(V1,FALSDT,DTF);RELAX(V2,FALSDT,DTF) RELAX(W1,FALSDT,DTF);RELAX(W2,FALSDT,DTF) RELAX(R1,LINRLX,0.3);RELAX(R2,LINRLX,0.3) RELAX(CFIP,LINRLX,0.3);KELIN=3 RELAX(KE,LINRLX,0.2);RELAX(EP,LINRLX,0.2) GROUP 18. Limits on variables or increments to them VARMIN(R1)=1.E-8;VARMIN(R2)=1.E-8 GROUP 19. Data communicated by satellite to GROUND GROUP 20. Preliminary print-out GROUP 21. Print-out of variables OUTPUT(CD,Y,N,N,N,N,N);OUTPUT(REYN,N,N,N,N,N,N) OUTPUT(CFIP,Y,N,N,N,N,N);OUTPUT(LEN1,N,N,N,N,N,N) GROUP 22. Spot-value print-out IYMON=2;IZMON=28;WALPRN=T GROUP 23. Field print-out and plot control NPRINT=LSWEEP;NZPRIN=1;NYPRIN=1;NPLT=50