CORA3 is a finite-difference computer program for predicting fluid flow, heat-transfer
and combustion in three-dimensional combustion equipment. Examples are: gas, liquid, solid
fuel fired funaces, gas-turbine combustors, chemical reactors, mixers, rocket motors, etc.
CORA3 can handle both steady and unsteady three-dimensional flows.
CORA3, in its basic form, solves three momentum equations:-
- the mass-conservation equations for fuel and matter without discrimination;
- the thermal-energy equation; the transport equations for turbulence energy and its
dissipation rate; and
- the three equations for the radiant flux sums in the axial, radial and circumferential
CORA3 therefore predicts the three-dimensional fields of:-
- axial velocity component
- radial velocity component
- circumferential (swirl) velocity
- composition variables (two)
- turbulence characteristics (two)
- radiation characteristics (three)
If any of these variables are not significant, for example if radiation is to be
ignored, the relevant equations are easily eradicated.
The space co-ordinates of CORA3 are either Cartesian (x,y and z), or else cylindrical
(x, r and q). CORA3 uses a fixed-grid system, evaluating variables at locations of fixed
x, y and z (or x, r and q). These locations are arranged on a rectangular or cylindrical
grid, the spacing of which may be non-uniform.
The boundaries of the domain of integration can be arbitrary; this means that they need
not conform to a rectangular or cylindrical shape, but may exhibit inclinations, curves,
The user of CORA3 specifies the following:-
- Geometrical shape of the combustion equipment including details such as:
(ii) cross-sectional dimensions;
(iii) location and size of entry ports for fuel and air;
(iv) location of size of exit port;
(v) size and location of baffles, if any.
- A set of thermodynamic, transport, chemical-kinetic and radiative properties of fluids
such as specific heat, density, viscosity, diffusivity, heat of reaction, emissivity, etc.
These quantities may be specified as constant or as a function of local thermodynamic
- Information regarding dependent variables at the boundary of the integration domain,
(i)mass flow rates, velocity components, and fluid properties such as p, T, r, m and e at
those parts of the boundary where the fluid enters;
(ii) prescription of temperature or heat flux at the walls;
(iii) fluid condition at the exit boundary, such as pressure.
CORA3 is provided with several modes of expressing output:-
- Distributions of all relevant quantities such as temperature, fuel mass fractions, etc,
by tables of values, by contour plots generated by the line printer or by other graphical
- Velocity distributions by way of vector plots.
- Heat transfer to the walls, heat content and temperature of exhaust gases and thermal
efficiency of the equipment, as tables of numbers.
- Convergence-monitoring information if required.