ESTER is a computer program
developed specifically for the simulation of multi-anode electrolytic smelters of the
Half-cell type. It is a derivative of the PHOENICS code, the most widely used and
well-validated flow simulation suite in the world, which bases its predictions on solving
the fundamental equations of fluid flow.
ESTER enables the user to represent the smelter fully in 3-D taking into account
all the major features of its design:
- any number of anodes in any arrangement;
- the frozen electrolyte 'freeze' around the edge of the cell;
- distortion of the metal-electrolyte interface due to pressure differences and due
to vertical Lorentz Forces;
- erosion of the anode undersides to follow the shape of the metalelectrolyte
- current generation due to the motion of the metal - the induced current;
The program solves the fundamental governing equations for:
- three components of metal velocity;
- three components of electrolyte velocity;
- the pressure;
- the gas fraction under the anodes, and the inter-anode gaps; and
- the electric potential distribution.
Based on these, it deduces:
- the height of the metal-electrolyte interface, and the height of the electrolyte
free surface; and
- the electric current distribution, and the induced currents. These, together with
given magnetic fields, are used to compute the Lorentz forces which drive the flow.
ESTER is configured to be easily extendible, either by the user, or by CHAM.
Features which can easily be added if required for a particular application include:
- thermal calculations, including the formation of freeze;
- calculation of aluminium oxide concentration in the electrolyte;
- interface to magnetic field calculation programs;
- interface to programs which can update the anode potentials and the cathode
For further information about
ESTER, licence arrangements, consultancy, seminars and courses, and more specifically what
it can do for you, contact CHAM.
Concentration, Heat & Momentum Ltd
Bakery House, 40 High Street
Wimbledon Village, London SW19 5AU
Tel: +44 208 947 7651
Fax: +44 208 879 3497
© Copyright 1999 CHAM Ltd.