TITLE : SIMULATION OF FIRE DEVELOPMENT IN AIRCRAFT
BY : Centre for numerical modelling - E R Galea
and process analysis
National Technical University, Greece - N C Markatos
- PHOENICS has been used to simulate aircraft cabin fires.
- The model was first used to predict the experimental results obtained
from a series of fire tests performed in a Boeing 737 fuselage
- The effect of openings in the fuselage and cabin compartmentation
was also investigated.
- A bfc grid was used for the simulations, with seats and other cabin
fittings represented by porosities.
- Both steady and transient simulations were performed.
- The fire was modelled as a volumetric heat source in the aisle of the
cabin. The heat output was 239kW for most of the simulations.
- The fire was asumed to be non-spreading.
- The k-e turbulence model was used.
- Venting was represented by openings in the ceiling and floor of the
cabin. Under normal ventilation conditions air was drawn from the
ceiling and injected from the floor, but the effect of reversing
the ventilation flow was also investigated.
The pictures are as follows:
Figure 1. Bfc grid used in the simulations.
Figure 2. Velocity field in a cylindrical section through the fire.
Figure 3. Comparison between numerical and experimental centre-line pressures.In this case a 50.7 kW fire was simulated.
Figure 4. Comparison between numerical and experimental centre-line temperature stratification at two distances from the rear of the cabin.
Figure 5. Temperature contours in a cylindrical section located midway between the rear of the cabin and the fire, for the cases (a) without venting, (b) with forward venting and (c) reverse venting.
- The simulated results show very good agreement with the experimental
- PHOENICS correctly predicts the temperature stratification that was
observed in the experiments.
- The simulations show how the action of the aircraft's ventilation
system can have a major effect on the temperature distribution within
the burning fuselage. With the venting reversed, the temperature in
the vicinity of the seat base is much lower than when normal or no
venting is used.
Full details of the PHOENICS simulation may be obtained in:
The mathematical modelling and computer simulation of fire
development in an aircraft.
E R Galea & N C Markatos
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol 34, No 1, 1991
Prediction of fire development in aircraft
E R Galea & N C Markatos
Presented at the 2nd International PHOENICS User Conference, Nov. 1987
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