Despite great advances in computer-aided engineering, certain
deficiencies remain, of which the chief are:
The road from CAD to CFD is not yet easy to travel;
The analyses of stresses in solids and of the flow of fluids are
handled by two distinct sets of algorithms, computer codes and
In respect of fluid flow (at least) the models of the physical
processes are often either inexact or computationally expensive,
and frequently both;
The expense of the necessary hardware, software and personnel limits
the wide use of available techniques.
Some progress can be reported regarding the CAD-to-CFD difficulty,
with the STL format proving to be of key importance.
It will be shown that solid stress and fluid flow can be analysed by
a single algorithm, a single code, and therefore a single specialist.
In respect of turbulence and radiation, the LVEL and IMMERSOL models
are advocated as being good compromises between economy and realism
for simple circumstances; and MFM, the "multi-fluid model", promises
the same for more complex ones.
Remote computing-plus-advisory services reduce the expense of