Encyclopaedia Index
Reserved Names of Patches or Variables
Contents
 Introduction
 Patch names
 Variable names
 Fortran variables used for properties
1. INTRODUCTION
The use of special names for patches or variables is a powerful and
flexible technique which users can employ for defining and controlling
the flow simulations performed by PHOENICS.
Many such names are employed in the versions of PHOENICS which are delivered
to users. They are here called 'reserved names'; and users are warned that,
when introducing new variables for their own use, they should always
avoid using those which are reserved. In particular, although they may
rename any of the first 17 reserved variables, they should not seek to give them
any nonstandard physical significance. For example, to rename H1
(firstphase sepcific enthalpy) as EPOT (electric potential) could have
undesired consequences.
This Encyclopaedia article provides lists, and brief explanations of the
names which have been reserved so far.
Numerous new reserved names of variables have been introduced into PHOENICS
in recent years, especially in order to facilitate:
The recentlyintroduced features are listed in the 'included' COMMON file
lbnamer where explanatory comments
are to be found.
Click here for reserved
variable names
or
here for reserved patch names
2. PATCH NAMES
Contents
First character
. as the first character. see PHENC entry: DOTPATCH
& as the first character. see PHENC entry: Group 12
* as the first character. see PHENC entry: STARNAME
$ as the first character. see PHENC entry: DOLLARNAME
> as the first character. see PHENC entry: GTNAME
+ as the first character. see PHENC entry: LINK
 as the first character. see PHENC entry: none
+ as the second character. see PHENC entry: LINK
 as the second character. see PHENC entry: LINEAR LINKS
Second character
% as the second character. followed by:
SE as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
SW as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
SH as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
SL as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
WN as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
WH as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
WL as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
EX as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
EY as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
EZ as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
DX as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
PX as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
DY as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
OY as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
DZ as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
OZ as the 2nd and 3rd characters. See PHENC entry: MASK
NE as the 2nd and 3rd characters
RAD as the 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
see the PHENC entry: STARNAME
POL as the 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
TIM as the 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters, see
First four characters
BUOY as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
BLIN as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
CHSO as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
CLDA as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
GP12 as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters, see GROUP 12 features
IBFC as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
IMBL as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters, see IMBAL
IPST as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
KEDI as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
KESO as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
LATG as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
LESO as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
OUTL as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
PROF as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
RADI as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
ROTA as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
SHSO as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
NOCP as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th characters,
First five characters
INIPOL as the 1st 5 characters, see
INIPOL
3. RESERVED NAMES OF SOLVED & STORED VARIABLES
3.1 The first 17 variables: P1......C2
These variables are:
number  name  meaning  typical units 
1  P1  firstphase pressure  N/m^{2} 
2  P2  secondphase pressure  N/m^{2} 
3  U1  firstphase xdirection velocity  m/s 
4  U2  secondphase xdirection velocity  m/s 
5  V1  firstphase ydirection velocity  m/s 
6  V2  secondphase ydirection velocity  m/s 
7  W1  firstphase zdirection velocity  m/s 
8  W2  secondphase zdirection velocity  m/s 
9  R1  firstphase volume fraction  none 
10  R2  secondphase volume fraction  none 
11  RS  secondphase shadow volume fraction  none 
12  KE  kinetic energy of turbulencs  J/kg 
13  EP  dissipation rate ofturbulence energy  J/(kg s) 
14  H1  firstphase epecific enthalpy  J/kg 
15  H2  secondphase epecific enthalpy  J/kg 
16  C1  firstphase component concentration  none 
17  C2  firstphase component concentration  none 
3.2 Variables which may be placed in any order
When the command: STORE(reserved name)
appears in a Q1 file, the PHOENICS solver module, EARTH, computes, and makes
available for printing or graphical display, the corresponding quantity,
as explained below.
It should however be understood that the STORE statement may not be
sufficient. Thus:
 STORE(AREE) will always produce the east areas, because
they always are computed, whereas
 STORE(CFIP) will produce nondefault values only if other
commands (viz ONEPHS = F, etc) have been supplied to ensure that
the interphase friction coefficient is actually being computed.
The discussion deals with complete names first and partial names second.
Complete names
the name : the corresponding quantity

 APRJ : projected area of particles per unit
volume in an interphasefriction model
 AREE : east cellface area
 AREN : north cellface area
 AREH : high cellface area
 ARRT : flamearrival time
 BLOK

BTAU : quantity used in the Bingham model of NonNewtonian fluids

CD : nondimensional drag coefficient in an interphasefriction model
 CFIP : interphase friction coefficient
 CHAR : char in wood combustion model
 CMDO : masstransfer rate from phase 2 to phase 2 for the cell
 CMI1 : mass of phase 1 entering the cell from outside the domain MIN1, divided by
the pressure difference which drives it
 CMI2 : mass of phase 2 entering the cell from outside the domain MIN2, divided by
the pressure difference which drives it
 CNE1 : outward convection flux (kg/s) of phase 1 through east cell face
 CNE2 : outward convection flux (kg/s) of phase 2 through east cell face
 CNN1 : outward convection flux (kg/s) of phase 1 through north cell face
 CNN2 : outward convection flux (kg/s) of phase 2 through north cell face
 CNH1 : outward convection flux (kg/s) of phase 1 through high cell face
 CNH2 : outward convection flux (kg/s) of phase 2 through high cell face
 CONI : as for CNE1 for (possibly moving) bodyfitted coordinates
 CONJ : as for CNN1 for (possibly moving) bodyfitted coordinates
 CONK : as for CNH1 for (possibly moving) bodyfitted coordinates
 CP1 : phase1 specificheat at constant pressure
 CP2 : phase2 specificheat at constant pressure
 CREY : local cell Reynolds number = VABS*VOL^{1./3}/(ENUT+ENUL)
 CTI1 : inward convection flux (kg/s) of phase 1 through 'time face'
 CTI2 : inward convection flux (kg/s) of phase 2 through 'time face'
 CTO1 : outward convection flux (kg/s) of phase 1 through 'time face'
 CTO2 : outward convection flux (kg/s) of phase 2 through 'time face'
 CUTC : indicator of whether a cell has 'cutcell' status
 DEN1 : phase1 density
 DEN2 : : phase2 density
 DIAM : diameter of particle in various twophase models
 DP1X : Xdirection pressure correction difference
 DP1Y : Ydirection pressure correction difference
 DP1Z : Zdirection pressure correction difference
 DRH1 : rate of change of log(phase1 density) with pressure
 DRH2 : rate of change of log(phase1 density) with pressure
 DTDX : Xdirection temperature gradient (TEM1 if TEM1 is SOLVEd, TEMP1 if TEMP1 is STOREd)
 DTDY : Ydirection temperature gradient (TEM1 if TEM1 is SOLVEd, TEMP1 if TEMP1 is STOREd)
 DTDZ : Zdirection temperature gradient (TEM1 if TEM1 is SOLVEd, TEMP1 if TEMP1 is STOREd)
 DTX2 : Xdirection temperature gradient (TEM2 if TEM2 is SOLVEd, TEMP2 if TEMP2 is STOREd)
 DTY2 : Ydirection temperature gradient (TEM2 if TEM2 is SOLVEd, TEMP2 if TEMP2 is STOREd)
 DTZ2 : Zdirection temperature gradient (TEM2 if TEM2 is SOLVEd, TEMP2 if TEMP2 is STOREd)
 DU1P : rate of change of U1 with pressure difference
 DV1P : rate of change of V1 with pressure difference
 DVO1 : rate of change of log(phase1 specific volume) with temperature
 DVO2 : rate of change of log(phase2 specific volume) with temperature
 DW1P : rate of change of W1 with pressure difference
 DU2P: rate of change of U2 with pressure difference
 DV2P: rate of change of V2 with pressure difference
 DW2P: rate of change of W2 with pressure difference
 DUDX: 1st Phase velocity gradient = ∂U_{1}/∂x
 DUDY: 1st Phase velocity gradient = ∂U_{1}/∂y
 DUDZ: 1st Phase velocity gradient = ∂U_{1}/∂z
 DVDX: 1st Phase velocity gradient = ∂V_{1}/∂x
 DVDY: 1st Phase velocity gradient = ∂V_{1}/∂y
 DVDZ: 1st Phase velocity gradient = ∂V_{1}/∂z
 DWDX: 1st Phase velocity gradient = ∂W_{1}/∂x
 DWDY: 1st Phase velocity gradient = ∂W_{1}/∂y
 DWDZ: 1st Phase velocity gradient = ∂W_{1}/∂z
 DU2X: 2nd Phase velocity gradient = ∂U_{2}/∂x
 DU2Y: 2nd Phase velocity gradient = ∂U_{2}/∂y
 DU2Z: 2nd Phase velocity gradient = ∂U_{2}/∂z
 DV2X: 2nd Phase velocity gradient = ∂V_{2}/∂x
 DV2Y: 2nd Phase velocity gradient = ∂V_{2}/∂y
 DV2Z: 2nd Phase velocity gradient = ∂V_{2}/∂z
 DW2X: 2nd Phase velocity gradient = ∂W_{2}/∂x
 DW2Y: 2nd Phase velocity gradient = ∂W_{2}/∂y
 DW2Z: 2nd Phase velocity gradient = ∂W_{2}/∂z
 EFEH: Parsol edge fraction
 EFNE: Parsol edge fraction
 EFNH: Parsol edge fraction
 EL1 : mixinglength of turbulence, for phase 1
 EL2 : mixinglength of turbulence, for phase 2
 EMIS: emissivity (also absorptivity) of radiant energy per unit volume
 ENUL: laminar viscosity
 ENUT : turbulent contribution to the
effective viscosity
 EOTV: Eotvos number used in EllipsoidalBubble "Cleanwater" Drag correlation
 EPKE: dissipation rate of turbulence energy per unit volume, epsilon, divided by turbulence energy, k
 EPOT: potential  no convection or transient terms, no turbulent diffusion
 FONE: Damping function in LamBremhorst
LowReynolds Number turbulence model
 FSQ : rootmean square of composition variable F in
PresumedPDF combustion model.
 FTWO: as FONE
 FMU : as FONE
 FOMG: multiplier F_{Ω} in
MMK turbulence model
 FUEL : mass fraction of unburned fuel in a
simple chemicallyreacting system (SCRS)
 FWD : Mass fraction Wood derivative
 FC : Carbon content for wood combustion model
 FH : Hydrogen content for wood combustion model
 FO : Oxygen content for wood combustion model
 FN : Nitrogen content for wood combustion model
 GEN1: sum of squares of phase1 velocity gradients where (GEN1)^{1/2}=√(2.*S_{ij}*S_{ij})
where S_{ij}= 0.5*(∂U_{i}/∂x_{j} + ∂U_{j}/∂x_{i})
 GEN2: sum of squares of phase2 velocity gradients
 GENK: effective viscosity times GEN1
 GNK2: effective viscosity times GEN2
 H0_1: enthalpy of phase 1 at zero temperature
 H0_2: enthalpy of phase 2 at zero temperature
 HTCO: heattransfer coefficient derived from wall function
 HFLX: heat flux
 INTF: as for CFIP
 INTM: as for CMDO
 ISVR : for debugging cut cell masking
 No variables starting 'J' at present.

KOND: the thermal conductivity (for phase 1)
 KND2: the thermal conductivity for phase 2
 LEN1: as for EL1
 LEN2: as for EL2
 LIMB: similar to objectidentifier, OBID; used for MOFOR
 LTLS: variable solved in order to deduce
values of WDIS and WGAP
 MACH: MACH Number of phase 1 fluid
 MACZ: MACH Number based on Z velocity used for parabolic option
IPARAB=5.
 MAC2: Mach Number of phase 2 fluid
 MARK: variable used in InForm to 'mark' cells
 MAS1: mass of phase 1 in the cell
 MAS2: mass of phase 2 in the cell
 MDOT: as for CMDO
 MIXF: 'mixture fraction', i.e. mass fraction
of (burned or unburned) material emanating from the fuelbearing stream in a
Simple ChemicallyReacting System.
 MIN1: mass of phase 1 entering the cell from outside the domain
 MIN2: mass of phase 2 entering the cell from outside the domain
 MXF1  MXF7: mass fraction of material from inlet 1  7 in wood combustion model (7 gasses)
 OBID: object identifier, used for MOFOR
 OXID: oxidant mass fraction when a Simple Chemically Reacting System is being modelled
 PDCX: celltocell pressure decrement in xdirection
 PDCY: celltocell pressure decrement in ydirection
 PDCZ: celltocell pressure decrement in zdirection
 PHDE: phase 2 diffusion flux in X direction
 PHDN: phase 2 diffusion flux in Y direction
 PHDH: phase 2 diffusion flux in Z direction
 POT : velocity potential
 PROD: product mass fraction when a Simple Chemically Reacting System is being modelled
 PRPS: material marker
 PRL : Prandtl Number for variables with
PRNDTL(phi)=GRND1
 PSOX: xdirection momentum source resulting from the pressure gradient
 PSOY: ydirection momentum source resulting from the pressure gradient
 PSOZ: zdirection momentum source resulting from the pressure gradient
 PTOT: total pressure (P1+0.5*DEN1*VABS^2) based on phase 1 velocity. Requires MACH to be STOREd
 PTO2 : total pressure based on phase 2 velocity. Requires MAC2 to be STOREd
 QCR1: Qcriterion where Q=0.5*(Ω^{2}S^{2}) where Ω is the
vorticity magnitude and S the strain rate magnitude
 QCR2: Qcriterion for phase 2.
 QDX : xdirection diffusive/conductive heat flux derived from gradients of TEM1 or H1
 QDY : ydirection diffusive/conductive heat flux derived from gradients of TEM1 or H1
 QDZ : zdirection diffusive/conductive heat flux derived from gradients of TEM1 or H1
 QRX : xdirection radiation flux computed by
immersol
 QRY : ydirection radiation flux computed by
immersol
 QRZ : zdirection radiation flux computed by
immersol
 RADX: net Xdirection radiative heat flux for
6Flux model
 RADY: net Ydirection radiative heat flux for 6Flux model
 RADZ: net Zdirection radiative heat flux for 6Flux model
 REYD: Reynolds Number based on interphase slip velocity used in interphase drag laws
 REYN: Reynolds Number in LamBremhorst Low
Reynolds Number turbulence model
 REYT: Reynolds Number in LamBremhorst Low
Reynolds Number turbulence model
 RHO1: as for DEN1
 RHO2: as for DEN2
 SCAT: scattering coefficient of radiant energy per unit volume
 SHRX: Xdirection friction force from wall functions
 SHRY: Ydirection friction force from wall functions
 SHRZ: Zdirection friction force from wall functions
 SIZE: particle/droplet diameter in twophase flow
 SKIN: skin friction coefficient
 SLPU: interphase slip velocity in X direction
(U1U2)
 SLPV: interphase slip velocity in Y direction
(V1V2)
 SLPW: interphase slip velocity in Z direction
(W1W2)
 SPH1: as for CP1
 SPH2: as for CP2
 STAN: Stanton Number, i.e. dimensionless heattransfer coefficient
 STRS: Wall shear stress divided by the local density
 SRM1: Strain rate magnitude S=(GEN1)^{1/2}=√(2.*S_{ij}*S_{ij})where
S_{ij}= 0.5*(∂U_{i}/∂x_{j} + ∂U_{j}/∂x_{i})
 SRM2: Strain rate magnitude of 2nd phase S=(GEN2)^{1/2}.
 SURN: currenttime volume fraction of liquid in
freesurface problems, solved with VOF,
SEM or HOL
 TREY: local turbulent Reynolds number, = ENUT/ENUL
 TWAL: wall surface temperature associated with the THINPLT object
 T3 : radiation temperature, used in IMMERSOL radiation model
 TEMP: phase1 temperature, when enthalpy is computed
directly
 TEM1: phase1 temperature, when computed directly
 TEM2: phase2 temperature, when computed directly
 TMP1: phase1 temperature, when enthalpy is
computed directly
 U1AD: the addition to U1 resulting from pressure
correction
 U1SL: U1 after solution but before pressure correction
 U2AD: the addition to U2 resulting from pressure correction
 U2SL: U2 after solution but before pressure correction
 U2CM: xdirection phase 2 velocity component for BFC
 U2CR: xdirection cartesian phase 2 velocity component for BFC
 UCMP: xdirection velocity component for BFC
 UCRT: xdirection cartesian velocity component for BFC
 V1AD: the addition to V1 resulting from
pressure correction
 V1SL: V1 after solution but before pressure correction
 V2AD: the addition to V2 resulting from pressure correction
 V2CM: ydirection phase 2 velocity component for BFC
 V2CR: ydirection cartesian phase 2velocity component for BFC
 V2SL: V2 after solution but before pressure correction
 VABS: Absolute velocity of phase 1
 VAB2: Absolute velocity of phase 2
 VCMP: ydirection velocity component for BFC
 VCRT: ydirection cartesian
velocity component for BFC
 VFOL: oldtime volume fraction of liquid in
freesurface problems, solved with VOF,
SEM or HOL
 VISL: as for ENUL
 VIST: as for ENUT
 VLSQ: sum of squares of phase 1 velocities, i.e. twice the kinetic energy
 VOLU: cell volume
 VOR1: Magnitude of the vorticity vector Ω=√(2.*ω_{ij}ω_{ij})^{1/2} where
ω_{ij}= 0.5*(∂U_{1,i}/∂x_{j}  ∂U_{1,j}/∂x_{i})
 VOR2: Magnitude of the 2ndphase vorticity vector.
 VOX1: vorticity component in YZ plane = ∂W_{1}/∂y  ∂V_{1}/∂z
 VOY1: vorticity component in XZ plane = ∂U_{1}/∂z  ∂W_{1}/∂x
 VOZ1: vorticity component in XY plane = ∂V_{1}/∂x  ∂U_{1}/∂y
 VOX2: phase2 vorticity component in YZ plane = ∂W_{2}/∂y  ∂V_{2}/∂z
 VOY2: phase2 vorticity component in XZ plane = ∂U_{2}/∂z  ∂W_{2}/∂x
 VOZ2: phase2 vorticity component in XY plane = ∂V_{2}/∂x  ∂U_{2}/∂y
 VOXY: vorticity in XY plane based on circulation theory
 VOYZ: vorticity in YZ plane based on circulation theory
 VOZX: vorticity in ZX plane based on circulation theory
 VREL: relative absolute velocity between the
two phases when ONEPHS=F
 W1AD: the addition to W1 resulting from
pressure correction
 W1SL: W1 after solution but before pressure correction
 W2AD: the addition to absolute velocity resulting from pressure correction
 W2CM: zdirection phase 2 velocity component for BFC
 W2CR: zdirection cartesian phase 2velocity component for BFC
 W2SL: W2 after solution but before pressure correction
 WAVE: phaseaverage zdirection velocity
 WCMP: zdirection velocity component for BFC
 WCRT: zdirection cartesian velocity component for BFC:
 WDIS: distance from the wall, calculated by the
LTLS method
 WEB : Weber number in interphase drag law for CFIPD=4 or 5
 WGAP: distance between walls, calculated by the
LTLS method
 XCEN: xdirection cartesian coordinate of
cell centre in a BFC grid
 YCEN: ydirection cartesian coordinate of cell
centre in a BFC grid
 YPLS: 'y plus', the nondimensional wall distance
 ZCEN: zdirection cartesian coordinate of cell
centre in a BFC grid
hashname variables
For a reason explained under
'partial names' below, many reserved names have # as the first character.
The following allow the
'status' of the cells
in the domain to be recorded, for
printing or graphical display, in 3Dvariable manner.
They correspond to the names of logical variables which users who engage in
the addition of
Fortran programming to
PHOENICS can exploit.
 #EBO, indicating that the East boundary is
either a domain boundary or adjoins a VAC cell
or a zero face porosity
 #EF , indicating that the East face is a phase boundary
 #EF0 which East face is blocked by zero face porosity;
 #EWP, indicating that the East wall type patch is present
 #HBO, indicating that the High boundary is
either a domain boundary or adjoins a VAC cell
or a zero face porosity
 #HF , indicating that the High face is a phase boundary
 #HF0, indicating that the High face is blocked by zero face porosity;
 #HWP, indicating that the High wall type patch is present
 #LBO, indicating that the Low boundary is
either a domain boundary or adjoins a VAC cell
or a zero face porosity
 #LF , indicating that the Low face is a phase boundary
 #LF0, indicating that the Low face is blocked by zero face porosity;
 #LWP, indicating that the Low wall type patch is present
 #MSFP, indicating that the that there is a massflow patch present in a cell;
 #NBO, indicating that the Low boundary is
either a domain boundary or adjoins a VAC cell
or a zero face porosity
 #NF, indicating that the North face is a phase boundary
 #NF0, indicating that the North face is blocked by zero face porosity;
 #NWP, indicating that the North wall type patch is present
 #POR, indicating that the there is a nonparticipating solid with friction;
 #SBO, indicating that the North boundary is
either a domain boundary or adjoins a VAC cell
or a zero face porosity
 #SF, indicating that the South face is a phase boundary
 #SF0, indicating that the South face is blocked by zero face porosity;
 #SLD which SLD means the cell is occupied by a solid material;
 #SWP, indicating that the South wall type patch is present
 #WBO, indicating that the West boundary is
either a domain boundary or adjoins a VAC cell
or a zero face porosity
 #WF0, indicating that the West boundary is
either a domain boundary or adjoins a VAC cell
or a zero face porosity
 #WF, indicating that the West face is blocked by zero face porosity;
 #WWP, indicating that the West wall type patch is present
 #VAC, indicating that the cell is empty, or 'vacant', and therefore
plays no part in the flow simulation.
Partial names.
Additionally, significance is attached to certain characters when they
appear in particular positions in the names of variables, as follows:
 # as the first character of the name will prevent
EARTH from automatically setting its value to
zero within cells occupied by solids, as is done
for all variables except:
R1, R2, RS, H1, H2, TEM1, TEM2, T3,EPOR, NPOR, HPOR, BLOK, and PRPS.
 % as the fourth character allows the
RESIDUALS of a
solvedfor variable to be stored and printed. However the
InForm 'RESI'
feature does the same job more neatly.
 C as the fourth character allows the values of the 'corrections'
of a solvedfor variable to be stored and printed. However the
InForm 'CORR'
feature does the same job more neatly.
4. FORTRAN VARIABLES USED FOR PROPERTIES
PHOENICS users who make use of the Groundcoding facility should also be
aware of the integer variables used for accessing material properties, namely those contained in COMMON/IPROPS/ to be found in the file prpcmn in D_INCLUD.
They are:
COMMON/IPROPS/DENST1,CMPRS1,DENST2,CMPRS2,VISTRB,VISCLM,PRNLAM,
1 INTVL1,INTVL2,TEMPR1,TEMPR2,MIXLN1,MIXLN2,SPEHT1,
1 SPEHT2,THRME1,THRME2,EMISSV,SCATTR,NAMSP3,INTFCO,
1 INTMTR,INTRC1,INTRC2,IVRMCO,NAMSP4(5)
The meanings of all of these quantities are best understood by reading comments at the top of the Fortran file gxprutil.for ,
as follows
It should be noted that each has a prescribed value, which should on
no account be changed.