If a user wants to make effective parallel calculations then he should be sure that
he has good PC-cluster. With the advent of cheap multi-core PCs, this task has been
somewhat simplified as, one can often obtain sufficient parallel computing power within
a single box. If one needs to set up a traditional cluster using multiple PCs then they
should be connected via a gigabit ethernet switch and be configured to enable TCP/IP socket
connections between all computers. For efficient parallel computations, it is preferable
to have all PCs in the cluster of the same specification.
It is difficult to make specific recommendations of hardware, as these would depend on
the budget available and the preferences of your organisation. PHOENICS in general, and
the solver in particular, does not require any special graphics capabilities, so in chosing
a PC we would recommend spending the extra on faster processors and additional RAM. Users
seem to want to run larger and larger models, so it is important to have sufficient RAM
available to run these models. On a multi-core PC, with a 32 bit operating system, we would
recommend having upto two gigabytes of RAM for each processor, plus and addition one gigabyte
of RAM to handle the operating system. If the user has a 64 bit machine and operating system
then the user may extend beyond this.
When a user connects his PCs on the local network, he hopes to get accelerations in his
calculations using parallel program. Often this is the case, but sometimes he sees deceleration.
To understand the reasons for deceleration the user should know something about parallel
programming. Each parallel CFD program uses decomposition of domain into several sub-domains.
The usual number of sub-domains is equal to the number of processors in PC-cluster. Each
sub-domain exchanges data with other sub-domains. If many data items are exchanged, then
processors will spend much time in exchanging them and useful time for calculations will be
very small. This situation demonstrates ineffective use of parallel calculations.
Effective parallel calculations will result when the time of calculations is significantly more
than the time of data exchange. Hence users should use decompositions which have smaller amount
of cells on boundaries. Time of data exchange is connected with latency and time for single
exchange which are characteristics of the PC-cluster.
Running of parallel PHOENICS has the several features:
Very popular slab-wise solution of hydrodynamics tasks should be abandoned because it leads
to a lot of exchanges of small data instead of one exchange of whole data which whole-field
manner is provided. User should inspect the file q1ear to sure that all variables are run
whole-field. It is especially concerned the models of turbulence which use slab-wise solution
by default, for example, statement TURMODE(KE) in Q1 leads to slab-wise solution of several
variables. Parallel run of such case is non-effective.
Usually automatic decomposition gives the best decomposition. But sometimes user wants to use
non-standard decomposition or he want to run case with Multi-Block grid. In this case he
should to write file PARDAT manually. Description of file PARDAT see
User should remember that some features of sequential PHOENICS are not implemented in parallel.
For example, InForm in sequential PHOENICS allows to link several cells by formulae, parallel
PHOENICS does not allow it.
CHAM is seeking a Manager to promote its CFD-based consultancy business. Check our Vacancies Page for further information
On May 26 Professor Spalding has been invited to delivery a keynote lecture at CHT-15 at Rutgers University.